أهلا بك زائرنا الكريم في منتديات آرتين لتعليم اللغات (^_^)
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تنويه هام : يرجى من أخوتنا الأعضاء كتابة الردود و المواضيع التي فيها فائدة فقط , و أي موضوع أو رد لا يحوي أي فائدة سيُحذف دون الرجوع الى صاحبه  :arrow:

- ننوه الى أخوتنا طلبة الأدب الإنجليزي أنه يمكنهم الاستفادة من أقسام اللغة الإنجليزية التعليمية المتخصصة التي أعدت لهم .


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  • عنوان المشاركة: Oedipus the King ...by Sophocles
مرسل: الأربعاء تشرين الأول 24, 2007 2:51 م 
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[englishtext]hey my friends in final year  :wink:  this is some helping ideas about our course in Classical Literature , i will start with Oedipus the King


First:
This is general ideas like.....Author....Plot Summary....Major Characters and Minor ones.

Then we will speak about it deeply in order to understand its mysterious issues ....thanks

yours ...Y.H.M

Author

Sophocles was born in the year 496 B.C. at Kolonos, a northern suburb of Athens. At the age of sixteen, he was chosen to lead the dance at the celebrations for the Athenian victory over the Persian navy. At twenty-eight, he won the prize of the tragedy competition, with his first entry. He then established a public career at Athens, where he was well distinguished. He was elected to serve a term as State Treasurer, and later served a term as the Special State Commissioner. He obtained one of these positions in a time of major crisis, which suggests that he was well known, and well liked in the Greek democracy. He was also nominated to compete at the annual Festival of Dionysos on approximately thirty occasions, and won the first prize eighteen times. He died at the age of ninety, in the year 406 B.C.
All these achievements go to show that "the conservative view of Sophocles as loftily detached, concerned with 'timeless' or 'universal' themes is mistaken; all seven surviving dramas engage with issues central to contemporary Athenian political, social and religious life" (Ewans). These achievements suggest Sophocles was not writing at a distance from controversy, but rather that he was close to it.
It is thought that Oedipus the King was written between 430 B.C. and 420 B.C. The plague that is spoken about in the book is similar to the plague that hit Athens at this time. The book has no villains, and all the characters are good men and women who are trying their best to help the city, Thebes, escape from the plague. Each of them acts naturally and truthfully, but because of their lack of integration of knowledge, their stories, and the book, become a tragedy. Although the traps can be foreseen, the reader can do nothing to change them, just as Oedipus can do nothing to change his fate. As one critic says, "Few dramas ever written expose so pitilessly the isolation, and the limitations, of human existence" (Ewans).


Plot Summary
Oedipus, the ruler of Thebes, approaches a group of unhappy citizens, represented by a priest, and asks them what is wrong. They answer that the city is dying and that they are sick and poor. Oedipus sympathizes and tells them that, as their ruler, he is also troubled by the sickness of the city, and has already taken steps to see that something be done about it. The first step he has taken was to send Creon to Apollo's shrine to see what the god recommends they do. As Creon appears, he tells them that the god, Apollo, said that there is bad blood in Thebes, and that until this blood is expelled Thebes will be a sick city.
This bad blood is the blood of the person who killed Laios. When Oedipus asks why the case was not investigated, as he had not come to Thebes at that point, the people answer that they were too busy trying to solve the Sphinx's riddle. Oedipus says that no matter what the cost is, he will get to the bottom of it, both because it harms Thebes, and because Laios was noble and loyal. The elders say that they do not have any knowledge of the murder, and suggest that Oedipus call Tiresias, a blind prophet, to help and advise him. Oedipus says that he has already done this, and Tiresias arrives promptly. Although reluctant to speak, Oedipus forces Tiresias to reveal what he knows. Tiresias says that Oedipus is Thebes' pollution and that he killed his father and sleeps with his mother, and that this is the truth. Oedipus accuses Tiresias of lying on Creon's behalf so that Creon can kill Oedipus and take over the position of ruler of Thebes.
Creon enters and says that Oedipus is not making any sense-of course he did not collaborate with Tiresias, because he also owns a third of Thebes but chooses not to rule it, leaving Thebes to Oedipus, which shows that he is not interested in ruling at all. Iokaste enters and stops the two men from arguing. When Creon leaves, she asks Oedipus what happened and he explains the whole story to her. She tells him not to believe the words of the oracle, as an oracle once predicted that her son would kill his father and share her bed, and this has never happened. She bore a son with Laios, but Laios had the feet of the child bound and had the child tossed in the wilderness.
Although this story is supposed to calm Oedipus down, it only worries him more. He asks about the place and time of Laios' death and for a description of Laios. Every answer adds to Oedipus' worry. Iokaste informs him that there was one survivor who was with Laios when he was attacked, so Oedipus calls for him. Iokaste also says that Laios had been killed by a group of people.
While waiting for the survivor, Oedipus tells Iokaste his life story, that a man had called him a bastard son, so he went to an oracle to inquire about it as no one would speak to him about it. The oracle, Delphi, told him that he was to kill his father and sleep with his mother. As a result, he left his hometown so that he would protect himself and his parents from this terrible prediction. On his journey to another town, he came to a three-pronged fork in the road, where a group of men attacked him. Oedipus killed all of them except for one.
At this time, a Corinthian enters and asks Oedipus to come back to Corinth and rule since his father has died. Afraid of his fate, Oedipus refuses, as he does not want to harm his mother. However, when Oedipus explains to the Corinthian his fate, the Corinthian says that Merope and Polybus were not Oedipus' real parents and that he had given Oedipus to them as a gift. When he asks where he was found, Oedipus is told that a herdsman had given him to the Corinthian in Mount Kithairon where he used to be a shepherd, and that his feet were tied together. When the survivor from Laios' killing enters, the Corinthian identifies him as the man who had given him Oedipus, and the herdsman admits that Iokaste had given him the baby to get rid of it, and that he had thought the Corinthian would take him far away, never to be seen again.
As a result of discovering all of the horrible prophecies have been fulfilled, Iokaste hangs herself. Oedipus discovers her body and takes her brooches off her dress and pierces his eyes until they bleed and he blinds himself. Then, he asks to be exiled from Thebes, which Creon grants, and he leaves to return to his starting place, Mount Kithairon. His daughters, Antigone and Ismene, are left in the hands of Creon, who proves to be a true friend of Oedipus.


Major Characters
Oedipus Rex: The ruler of Thebes, Oedipus was destined to sleep with his mother and kill his father. Knowing this fate, his parents abandoned him, and he was raised by a different family. However, Oedipus had no knowledge of this, and after hearing of his fate he left his parents in order not to hurt them. After many years, he discovers that he has done exactly what his fate had predicted, as he has found and married his mother by chance, and killed his father on the road without knowing who he was.
Creon: Oedipus' brother-in-law, and Iokaste's brother. Oedipus accuses Creon of attempting to kill him and take his title. Creon also supported Tiresias, who predicted Oedipus' fate, so Oedipus resentments him even more. What Oedipus imagines to be Creon's murderous intentions, however, are discounted when it's revealed that Creon owns a third of Thebes but chooses not to rule (so he's not power-hungry). Creon turns out to be a true friend, as he agrees to take care of Oedipus' daughters when Oedipus goes into exile.
Iokaste: Oedipus' wife and mother. Iokaste was also Creon's sister, and was previously married to Laios. Although she wants Thebes to get better, she does not want Oedipus to pursue the path he has taken in finding out why Thebes is sick, as she is scared that what the oracles predicted when Oedipus was born is true. Iokaste, up to this point, does not believe in the oracles, since she thought that her son had died and could not live to do what the oracles had proclaimed he would do.
Minor Characters
The priest of Zeus: The priest that represents the people when they come to Oedipus to complain of the disasters that are befalling them and the city.
Gods: Many gods, such as Zeus and Ares, are offered prayers for many different reasons. When the people have problems, they turn to the gods for advice.
Apollo: The Sun god and Healer god. The people of Thebes ask Apollo for advice when they want to save Thebes. Since Apollo saved Thebes once before, the people believe he can do it again. It is Apollo's shrine that Iokaste goes to when she prays for the gods to help Oedipus cure Thebes.
Laios: Oedipus' father and Iokaste's first husband. It was his fate to be killed by his son, and therefore he tried to get rid of his newborn boy. However, his fate befell him when Oedipus (who never knew his true parents) got into a fight with Laios' party at a crossroads, and killed him.
Delphi: An oracle that predicts Oedipus will kill his father and sleep with his mother.
The elders: They represent the voice of Thebes, and give advice to Oedipus. They are very holy and pray to the gods all the time. They are disappointed with the sorry state of Thebes.
Ares: The Slaughter god of War. The elders pray to him to help stop Thebes from burning and being destroyed.
Tiresias: The blind prophet who predicts fate and can see the future. He is called on by Oedipus for advice, but when he reveals Oedipus' fate, the king gets angry, accuses him of conspiring with Creon to kill him and take his place as king, and tells him to leave.
Polybus: Oedipus' surrogate father in Corinth, and the ruler of Corinth. Oedipus left Corinth because he was destined to kill his father, whom he thought was Polybus. When Polybus died of natural causes, the people of Corinth came to Oedipus and asked him to rule.
Zeus: The elders call upon the god, Zeus, to give help to Thebes and Oedipus.
Corinthian: The man who brings news of Polybus' death and who asks Oedipus to rule Corinth. He also informs Oedipus that Merope and Polybus are not his real parents, and that he himself gave them the baby Oedipus, whom he'd received from a herdsman.
Merope: Oedipus' surrogate mother in Corinth, and current ruler of Corinth. Oedipus left Corinth because he was destined to sleep with his mother, who he thought was Melope.
Herdsman/Shepherd: Oedipus was given to the herdsman by Iokaste, who tried to get rid of her ill-fated child. This herdsman once grazed sheep in Mount Kithairon with the Corinthian, and had given him to Iokaste's child. Also, he was the only survivor of the fight between Oedipus and Laios.
Dionysos: A god who roams the hilltops and who the elders hope is Oedipus' father when they learn that he was found on a hill.
Labdakos: The ruling family of Thebes, consisting of Creon, Laios and Iokaste. Oedipus married Iokaste after Laios died, and therefore ruled as king of Thebes, since Creon didn't want to rule.
Antigone: One of Oedipus' daughters, who Oedipus asks Creon to take care of.
Ismene: One of Oedipus' daughters, who Oedipus asks Creon to take care of.

[/englishtext]

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غير متصل
thanks alot...
would you plz write about HEART OF DARKNESS

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مرسل: الأربعاء تشرين الأول 24, 2007 2:59 م 
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this is my pleasure  8)  8)  8)


u r welcome sister and this is for every one in fourth year

thanks  *ورود  *ورود  *ورود

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:: ذكر ::


غير متصل
Thanks Yamen ......... in deed , you are a special man. *ورود  *1

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( صفوة لتعليم اللغة الإنكليزية و الترجمة )


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غير متصل
ِكرا جزيلا يامن
تم التثبيت

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:: أنثى ::


غير متصل
waaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaw  *sla  What a Yamen  *1  

God bless your great efforts bro  *ورود

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[englishtext]Objects/Places

Thebes: The city in which all events take place. Thebes is deteriorating, with infertile soil, and women who are giving birth only to stillborns. As a result, its ruler, Oedipus, wants to find out what is wrong and has sent his brother-in-law, Creon, to an oracle. This oracle says that there is someone living in Thebes who is of bad blood.
Sphinx's riddle: Thebes was cursed by this riddle, which Oedipus solved when he first came to Thebes. As a result, he was considered the savior of the city, and people expect him to save Thebes again from its current troubles.
Shrine: Every time someone has a problem, they go to the appropriate god's shrine to pray. The common belief is that the gods will solve problems or show people the road to a solution.
Corinth: The city where Oedipus grew up. He left Corinth because he was scared of his fate--that he would kill his father and share a bed with his mother. He left thinking that Polybus and Melope were his true parents.
Fate: Running from fate drives everyone's actions. Oedipus tried to avoid his fate by leaving Corinth, so he wouldn't kill his father and wed his mother. Iokaste discarded her son because of his cursed fate. However, Oedipus ends up running directly into his and his family's inescapable fate.
Oracles: Fate is predicted by the oracles, and the elders believe that it is a sin not to believe them. Iokaste, however, does not believe in the oracles when they predict that her son will kill his father and have sex with her, because she thinks her son is dead. In trying to convince Oedipus that the oracles do not know what they are talking about, she brings out the truth--that Oedipus is her son and that the oracles have predicted their fate correctly.
Isthmia: Corinth is a part of this land. The Corinthian comes to Thebes to tell Oedipus that his father has died, and that the people of Isthmia want him to become their new ruler.
Mount Kithairon: The mountain where Oedipus was given to the Corinthian, when a herdsman from Thebes was ordered to get rid of the child. This is also the place Oedipus chooses for his new home when he is exiled from Thebes.




Quotes


Quote 1: "among the foremost men in daily matters and in dealings with the gods." Line 34
Quote 2: "ungodly pollution" Line 353
Quote 3: "a resident stranger as it seems, but soon to be revealed as a native Theban." Line 451
Quote 4: "blind, though now he sees - and poor, though now he's rich - he'll use a stick to guide his steps into another land." Line 454
Quote 5: "he'll be revealed a brother and a father to his children in his house, husband and son to her who gave him birth; wife-sharer and the killer of his father." Line 457
Quote 6: "[it is] not right to think good men, without a reason, bad or bad men good." Line 609
Quote 7: "Time alone can make it clear a man is just while you can know a traitor in a day." Line 613
Quote 8: "Laios had the feet of this child bound and pinned. Someone tossed it in a mountain wilderness. So there. Apollo didn't cause this boy to be his father's killer. Laios didn't bear the terror he feared from his son. That's what the words of prophecy defined." Line 717
Quote 9: "send him to the fields, the sheep pastures, so far he couldn't even lay eyes on Thebes." Line 761
Quote 10: "if a man's contemptuous, and goes along with acts and speaks without respect for what is right and doesn't revere statues of gods, then let a sorry fate destroy him - for this perverse pride - since he unjustly reaps rewards, does not respect what's godly." Line 883
Quote 11: "He unpinned and tore away the golden brooches from the robes which she was dressed in, raised them up and struck at his own eyeballs, yelling something like, 'You'll not look on the disgraceful things I've done or have had done to me. In darkness now you'll look on those I ought not to have seen, and not know those I yearned to know,'" Line 1268
Quote 12: Oedipus' cloud of darkness is "inescapable, unspeakable, unstoppable, driven by cruel winds." Line 1314
Quote 13: "to live where time allows, and have a better life than the man who fathered you." Line 1514
Quote 14: "[Oedipus] knew the famous riddles. He was a mighty king, he was the envy of everyone who say how lucky he'd been. Now he's struck a wave of terrible ruin. While you're alive, you must keep looking to your final day, and don't be happy till you pass life's boundary without suffering grief." Line 1524


Topic Tracking: Exile


Exile 1: Oedipus promises not to harm the man that comes forward, or is known to have killed Laios. He is not interested in taking this man's life, only that he no longer live in Thebes, so that the city can get better. He therefore promises only to exile Laios' killer.
Exile 2: Tiresias foresees, and tells everyone, that Oedipus will be driven out of Thebes in terror by the curses of his parents. Not only will he be exiled, he will be exiled blind, poor, and weak, and will have to use a stock to guide himself to another land.
Exile 3: After he accuses Creon of seeking his death and conspiring with Tiresias to dethrone him, the elders ask Oedipus to calm down and believe Creon, for they do not believe that Creon is a fool, and they believe his oath because nobody should cast off a friend as unworthy or doubt their word. Oedipus says that when they seek support for Creon, they seek his death or exile from Thebes. This statement brings grief to the elders because they support and believe Oedipus.
Exile 4: After her son is born, Iokaste has him exiled, as his fate was for him to kill his father and sleep with his mother.
Exile 5: When the servant who had witnessed the killing returned to Thebes, he asked to be exiled and asked Iokaste to "send him to the fields, the sheep pastures, so far he couldn't even lay eyes on Thebes."
Exile 6: When asked about his fate, Apollo told Oedipus that there were terrible things in store for him. Among these was the news that he was to mate with his own mother and kill his father. As a result, Oedipus decided to leave Corinth and live elsewhere, so that he would not see these oracles fulfilled.
Exile 7: After all that has happened, Iokaste kills herself, and Oedipus blinds himself and asks to be exiled from Thebes so that he will not be seen by anyone. This fulfils Tiresias' prophesy.
[/englishtext]


yours   Y.H.M

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غير متصل
Yamen, Oedipus the King
ارجوك بدي ترجمة

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:: أنثى ::


غير متصل
Yamen

Thanx so much for helping us in this subject  *ورود

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غير متصل
thaks again.......... waiting for more  *ورود

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التوقيع
There is no easy walk to freedom anywhere, and many of us will have to pass through the valley of the shadow of death again and again before we reach the mountaintop of our desires.
 
Nelson Mandela
 


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